Aim — to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic significance of HLA class 1 histocompatibility antigens in the development of anterior uveitis. Material and methods. A total of 137 patients with anterior uveitis followed up at the Research Institute of Eye Diseases in 2009—2016 were tested for HLA antigens (A and B loci). The average patient’s age was 29±12.4 years. All patients underwent a thorough medical interview with clinical and laboratory assessment. In case of suspected association with systemic disease, the patients were referred for consultation at the V.A. Nasonova Research Institute of Rheumatology. HLA typing was performed using a standard microlymphocytotoxicity test with specific anti-HLA sera (production of Gisans CC, Saint Petersburg). Statistical processing was performed with Statistica 6.0 software by applying methods of descriptive and nonparametric statistics (Mann—Whitney test). Results. The results of HLA class 1 typing indicated a significant positive association between uveitis and the HLA-B27 antigen (p<0.00001). Moreover, there was a trend toward decreased frequencies of В7, B12, and B21 antigens (p=0.1), however, the changes were not statistically significant as compared to the control group. Other HLA class 1 antigens also did not differ significantly in frequency between uveitis patients and the controls. Conclusion. The study has confirmed an association between certain histocompatibility antigens and systemic diseases. However, a statistically reliable relationship has been established only for the HLA-B27 antigen.