Chromomycosis (CM, ICD-10 code B43) is a chronic deep tissue mycosis occurring predominantly in tropical and subtropical countries. The causative agents of CM are fungi of the genera Fonsecaea and Cladophialophora, which are plants and soil saprophytes. They enter the human skin during trauma, which is why CM is called implantation (subcutaneous) mycosis. In Europe, the disease tends to be sporadically imported; meanwhile, autochthonous (local) sporadic cases have been described in temperate countries. In endemic regions, diagnosis of CM is often challenging, and most drugs used in treatment remain unavailable due to the underdevelopment of health care, but even in countries with higher levels of health care, there is no gold standard of treatment for CM. The combination of antimycotic pharmacological therapy with physical and surgical methods of treatment is prioritized, as this method provides a good outcome in a short time. Non-surgical treatment is carried out before, during and after the surgery. We present a literature review and our own clinical observations. Also, a case of effectively treated CM caused by Fonsecaea pedrosoi in a patient with no previous travel history permanently residing in the Moscow region is presented. Treatment with surgical excision of the lesion and antimycotic therapy in the pre- and postoperative periods resulted in complete clinical recovery.