Tropical dermatoses are rarely found in the practice of a dermatologist in Russia. Given that sometimes residents of Russia travel to tropical countries on vacation or on business trip, it is important to know what diseases are endemic for these areas. We present the clinical observation of furuncle myiasis in a patient who visited Brazil shortly before the disease. The disease manifested itself in the form of growing painful abscesses of the scalp skin, the diagnosis caused difficulties. A dermatologist, therapist, neurologist, and surgeon participated in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Some of the proposed treatments mitigated the symptoms of disease a little, while others were ineffective. The disease gradually developed, despite the use of various drugs. Only after surgery was it possible to identify the cause of painful scalp infiltrates. The article explains the epidemiology and pathogenesis of furuncle myiasis, various methods for its diagnosis and treatment. Some of the methods of diagnosis and treatment are not sufficiently developed or are not acceptable for medical care in Russia. The possibility of furuncle myiasis in patients with painful infiltrates in open areas of the body who have a history of visiting South and Central America should be suggested.